About Mongolia

There are a few places now left in the world where they still keep a sense of their adventure, unique cultural heritage, untouched landscape, real nomads, hospitable people, geography, and ecosystems. These make Mongolia one of the most interesting places to visit in the world.

Mongolia is a country of growing tourist interest since its communism collapsed down and its doors opened to the world. Mongolia is rich with places of natural beauties, and a visit to nomadic people, and their lifestyle makes it even gorgeous, as they have their traditions and style of earliest day reliantly unchanged.

Mongolia is a country with a remarkable variety of natural contrasts. Eternally snow-capped high Altai, Khangai and Khenty mountain ranges, rising high places above sea-level, neighbor with vast hilly Plains covered with highland plants and marshy coniferous forests, rolling steppes, Gobi deserts and semi-deserts and numerous clear-water lakes, rivers and with natural springs.

The territory of Mongolia is large; it is one of the untouched places that has no fences around and no crowded spots. It’s almost three times the size of France and more than 4 times the United Kingdom. Population of Mongolia is 30 times less than population of France, so that it is one the sparsely populated country in the World. It’s is only 2.8 million but half of them live in the beautiful countryside as truly nomads who herd livestock and keep their unique culture since Ancient times.

It has fabulous wide-open land of extreme climate with large seasonal temperature fluctuations and a low total annual rainfall, averaging about 220 mm per year and generally dry and hot in summer and cold in winter and extraordinary natural environment with breathtaking scenery, fascinating wildlife and wonderfully hospitable people. Mongolia is a land of 3 million horses, 42 million live stocks. Moreover, Mongolia is rich with flora and fauna such as more than 3000 species vascular plants, 927 lichens, 437 mosses, 875 fungi, and numerous algae have been recorded. Mongolia’s fauna includes 136 species of mammals, 476 birds, 8 amphibians, 22 reptiles, 75 fish, and numerous some wild animals in this country such as wild boars, brown bear, elk, musk deer, sable, Squirrel and moose in the northern forests and Argali (wild sheep) and ibex, lynx, Grey Wolf and rare snow leopard in the High Altai Mountains and Wild camel, Wild horse, Gobi bear, Black and white tailed gazelles in the steppe and Gobi desert.

Brief introduction to Mongolia:

Location: Mongolia is landlocked country in North East Asia, situated between Russia and China.

Area: 1.564.116 square km area, almost three times the size of France. It is the 6-th largest country in Asia and 18-th in the world. Totally border of country is 8,158 km passes exclusively through land. 3.485 km area is bordering with the Russian federation and 4.673 km is with the China. The distance between the country’s westernmost and easternmost points is 2.392 km and 1259 km from north to south.

Capital: Ulaanbaatar City, (Approximately 1.3 million people live). The country is divided into 21 administrative territorial units – Aimag, including 330-Soums.

Politics: Parliamentary democracy with president elected once in every four year, and parliament hall has with 76 members.

Economy: Free market economics, based on livestock, Agree culture, mining and Tourism.

Population: The population is around 3.2 million.  Approximately 60% of which live in urban areas, 40% are truly nomadic. Mongolians can be subdivided into more than 20 different ethnic groups, which are scattered across the country. The majority of Mongolians are Khalkh, which accounts for over 90% of the total population mainly live in central, eastern and southern Mongolia. 4.3% Kazakhs in Western part of country and 4.7% ethnic groups such as Buryad, Oirat, Darkhat, and Tsaatan who live in eastern, western and northern Mongolia. The population is homogeneous, with Mongol-speaking people constituting 95% of the total. The only substantial non-Mongolia group, representing over 5% of the population, is the Kazaks, a Turkish-speaking people dwelling in the far west. Mongolia gives 1.6 persons per square kilometer area

Language: Mongolian (belongs an Altai language family); among the foreign language is an English widely spoken.

Religion:  Shamanism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity exist in Mongolian. 90% Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism, also elements of Shamanism, 6% Muslim, mainly in the south-west and 4% Christianity.

Climate: Mongolia is cold, and dry. It has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and hot summers, during which most precipitation falls. Humid air from the Atlantic and pacific Oceans are blocked by the huge Central Asian mountain ranges. Average temperatures over most of the country are below freezing from November through March and are about freezing in April and October. It is + 20 C in summer, and – 25C in winter Mongolia is a sunny country with about 260 days of sunlight and home land of blue sky.

Altitude: Average is 1.586 meters above sea level. 80% of total territory is situated about 1000 meters above sea level. Highest point is 4,374 m above sea level named Huiten peak in Altai Mountain ranges. Lowest place is 560 m above sea level where is in eastern part of country.

Destination Mongolia

Western Mongolia is most beautiful part of the country, it is covering territory of Bayan- Ulgii, Khovd, Uvs, and Zavkhan provinces in western Mongolia. Western Mongolia is land of paradise, it has many variety of different landscape including, snow-capped mountains of Altai mountain range with the highest peaks in Mongolia with 4374m, Uvs lake basin, Great lake depressions, Sand dunes, mountains rivers, forests, and open valleys. Also the region is home to nomadic tribes of Kazakh nationality, who has Muslim religion and occupies 4.3% population of the Mongolians. They are peaceful living in western Mongolia with their golden eagles for training them for hunting in thousands of years. Additionally there are small ethic groups of Tuvan, Torguud, Uuld, Uriankhai, zakhchin, bayad and Myangads living in the western Mongolia. Western regions are not only home to archeological sites with petroglyphs, cave paintings, standing stone monuments, stone figures, and ancient forts that date back as far as 10,000 years but also there are rare rodents, mammals and birds such as Snow Leopard, Argali Wild Mountain Sheep wild ibex, Altai marmots, Moose, Golden Eagle, Altai Snow Cock, Red deer so forth.

Kazakh Eagle Hunter in Western Mongolia. Petroglyphs in Western Mongolia. Human culture over a period of 12,000 years.
Altai Tavan Bogd National Park. July, 2012

Altai Tavan Bogd National Park

This National Park located south of Mongolia’s highest mountain, Mongol Altai, covering 636.200 hectares in Bayan-Ulgii province. A stunning landscape of eternal snowcapped mountains, three largelakes, alpine and sub-alpine forest and rivers, making the National Park scenic. Mongol Altai Mountain range is one of the three main mountain ranges in Mongolia, lasting 900 kilometers. Altai Tavan Bogd and Tsambagarav Mountains are the highest peaks of the West Altai mountain chain. Huiten peak in Altai Tavan Bogd is the highest point of Mongolia, reaching 4,374 meters above sea level. The rare rodents, mammals and birds such as Altai mountain sheep, Altai marmots, Moose, Golden Eagle, Altai Snow Cock and Red deer seen there. Average precipitation is 400-500 mm per year. Altai Tavan Bogd protected in 1996.

Tsambagarav Mountain National Park.

Tsambagarav mountain national park was established in 2000 by 11000 square kilometers area of Khovd province in western Mongolia. It is snowcapped mountain with its height 4200m, so it makes more adorn for the surrounding nomads.

Ulaagchnii Black Lake.

Ulaagchnii Khar nuur is located in the territory of Zavkhan province in western Mongolia. This lake was established as strictly protected area in 2010. The Lake occupies between dale of Khangai mountain range and great lakes depression. The lake is surrounded by pure sand dunes and mountains which gives you great hikes or horseback riding.

Great Lakes Depression.

The Great lakes depression is a large semi – arid depression in Mongolia that covers most part of the western Mongolia. Great lake depression covers about 100.000 square kilometers area and average altitude is from 700 to 2,000 meters above sea level. Great Lakes Depression is a major freshwater basin of Mongolia and contains important wetland of central Asia.

Muhar Shivert, Stream in the sand dunes.

Lake Khovsgol

HUVSGUL LAKE TOUR.Lake Khovsgol, known as the “Dark blue pearl” is located in the northernmost province of Mongolia near the border to Russia. The Lake Huvsgul is length of 136 km, width of 36 km, at an altitude of 1645 m above sea. It is 262 meters deep, making the Lake the deepest in Central Asia. The Lake is the freshest one of Mongolia, a layer of water this thick allows to see the Lake’s bad inlaid with colorful stones and the World’s 14th largest source of fresh water. It is the second-most voluminous freshwater lake in Asia, and holds nearly 70% of Mongolia’s fresh water and 1% of all the fresh water in the world. More than 90 rivers and streams flow into the Lake Huvsgul but the only Egiin Gol runs out which connects to the Selenge and ultimately into Lake Baikal. It’s inhabited by nine species of fish including the Lenok and Siberian grayling. The highest mountain peak in the locality Munkh Saridag, rises to 3491 meters above sea level. The Lake is surrounded by mountains, meadows and forest and it is the great spot to have vacation, hiking and trekking. Different ethnic groups live near to the Lake Huvsgul such as Mongols or Khalkha, Buryat, Darkhat. Taiga Fauna and Flora and Tsaatan-reindeer riders are the main attractions for tourist.

Tsaatan Nomadic Family (Rein Deer Riders)

HUVSGUL LAKE TOUR MONGOLIATsaatan, more known as reindeer riders, live on the shores in the mountainous taiga and forest steppe regions to the north and west of the lake Huvsgul is a branch of the Turkic-speaking Tuvinian or Dukha ethnic group. Usually they live in high mountains in taiga, which are very difficult to reach. Mountains are 3000 meters above the sea level; region has rocks thick grown forests. Deer and yaks are suitable in the part of the land. At present 32 families are living in the taiga. Population of Tsaatan is the most minorities in the world. The main foods of Tsaatans are reindeer dairy products and meats of wild animals hunted by them. The tsaatan people move about 6-8 times a year. They use about 5-6 reindeer for transportation and the distance is 60-140km.

Khorgo, Terkh National Park.


Khorgo Extinct Volcano

Khorgo extinct volcano is located in Arkhangai province at an altitude of 2200 meters with a diameter of 200 meters and depth of 80 meters. It is almost 700 km from UB. The volcano erupted 20 million years ago and the explosion made some interesting formations in the nature. Khorgo is rich in wild animals and various plants and flowers. There are 227 species of birds, 1600 species of plants and 46 species of mammals are found. The northern slope is covered with Siberian Larch. The area has beautiful scenery of mountains, small streams and green forests where the yaks and other livestock pasture.

Terkhiin Tsagaan Nuur (Great White Lake)

Terkhiin tsagaan nuur is a beautiful lake with relatively pure fresh water. It is 16 km length, 10 km width and 20m deep. The lava from the Khorgo volcano blocked the Terkh River so Terkhiin Tsagaan Nuur formed at 2.060 meters above sea level. Various flowers cover the shore of lake, making the lake scenic. There 9 species of fish such as Mongolian taimens, lenoks and graylings could be seen. The lake is home to many kinds of bird simply swan, geese and duck and in summer time it is great to hear the bird singing.

Terelj National Park

Terelj national park tourTerelj National Park is recognized as a part of the huge Khan Khentii National Park and was established in 1193. The park is located at altitude of 1600 meters and 80km northeast of Ulaanbaatar. It has been used as a tourism destination by both Mongolians and foreigners since 1964 and open all year round. It is one of the scenic spot of Mongolia and popular with exotic rock formation that challenging for climbers. The National Park is rich in wild animals and wild flowers and plants. Edelweiss and meadows are widespread. Furthermore 253 bird species and 50 mammal species such as brown bear, wolf, lynx, and sable are known from the National Park. The two major rivers, the Tuul and the Terelj, flow through the park. The cedar and cedar-larch covered northern slopes. The park also has main attractions of tourism that including Turtle Rock, Old man reading book and Buddhist monastery that is open to visitors.

Hustai National Park

Hustai National Park (Birch Mountains), located in 110 km from the capital city of Ulaanbaatar to the west, officially protected as national park in 1993. It covers 50,000 hectare of the Hustai area. The National Park was known an area of Mongolian Wild Horses Takhi. The Takhi is the last surviving ancestor of the modern domestic horse. Also known as Przewalski’s Horse, the species once roamed the steppe of Central Asia and Europe, but since 1968 has been extinct in the wild. Hustai National Park’s Takhi re-introduction project is part of a world-wide initiative to return the highly endangered species to its Mongolian homeland. Now there are 250 populations have been breeding in this area.


Genghis Khan Equestrain Statue.

The World Largest Equestrain statue is a 131 foot tall statue of Genghis Khan (1162-1227) on horseback with a golden whip in his right hand gazing into the his birth place distance, has been erected on the bank of the Tuul river at the Tsonjin Boldog, 54 km east of Ulaanbaatar. According to legend, he becoming the Great Khan who conquered half the known World after overcoming difficulties in his childhood when he lost his father, found a horse whip on the way back from Toiril Khan, Khereid tribe where he had gone to ask for help when Mergid tribe had captured his wife in 1117. Finding a horse whip is perceived by Mongolians as a good omen. Therefore, finding the whip, Genghis Khan became greedy seeing it as a path being opened to the great cause. When you visit at this fascinating complex, you will walk to the head of the horse through its chest and neck, where they have a panoramic view.

KaraKorum (Mongolian Ancient Capital)

KaraKorum, Genghis Khan’s fabled city, is located in Uvur khangai province, 400 km south-west of Ulaanbaatar. KaraKorum was founded in 1220 in Orkhon Valley. The Nature, weather and transportations were very suitable for nomadic stated countries. Also, this region offers favorable chance to combine agriculture and livestock husbandry. It was the capital for 40 years until Kubilai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, moved it to Beijing. KaraKorum was the true urban, diplomatic and commercial center before moved to Beijing. In 1235 a lot of commercial streets, Buddhist temples, Christian and Muslim churches and other big objects were built in the town. In addition, scientists discovered a burial of a Mongolian woman which dates back to approximately the 14th century, two Egyptian masks, a wooden comb and a bronze mirror in a silk case were found – shows ancient relationship between the nations. During the existence time it was a busy city with high civilization but completely destroyed in the fierce battles of the internecine war. Later in 1364 after the Yan Dynasty collapse, KaraKorum turned into the capital city again.

Erdene Zuu Buddhist Monastery

Erdene zuu, the first Buddhist monastery in Mongolia, was built on the ruins of Ancient Capital KaraKorum in 1586 at the initiative of Abtai khan, a most influential Prince of that time in Mongolia. Whatever was left from KaraKorum city was used to build the monastery. This great monastery is built in a similar way as Mongolians Ger, traditional round dwellings made of wood with a felt covering and it is the only monastery built using traditional Mongolian city planning methods. The Monastery surrounded by Karakorum monumental walls (400 m of length) with 108 stupas that built at the end of 18th and early 19th century, with the support of donations from a variety of people. In 1792, it housed 62 temples, over 500 buildings and 10,000 lamas but it was badly destroyed during the Stalinist purges in the 1930s. After democratic revolution in 1990, it has restored. Today Erdene Zuu remains an active Buddhist monastery as well as a museum that is open to tourists.

Mongolian Gobi

Gobi is one of the most interesting and mysterious places in the world. The desert steppe covers almost 30% of the Mongolian territory and north eastern China. It occupies an area of land 1,000 miles (1,609 km) long and 300–600 miles (500–1,000 km) wide. Climate is extreme with +40° in summer and -40° in winter and very little precipitation. It has herds of Bactrian camels (two humped), wild horses and wild ass, mountain sheep and ibexes as well as leopards. In the mountainous areas, rare species such as the Snow Leopard and the Gobi Bear can be found. The main attraction to the area is the rich in dinosaur fossils, with numerous skeletons being uncovered.

Yolyn Am (Vulture Valley)

Yolyn Am is the narrow canyon of Zuun Saikhan Mountain-2500 meter above the sea level, 62 kilometers north-west of Dalanzadgad town, the center of South Gobi province. There is a thick corridor of ice, which remains until the mid-summer. The various wild animals inhabit such as ibex and wild sheep which very earlier in the morning run down from peaks to stream to drink water. The narrow Valley between high rock walls has breathtaking scenery and in rainy summers hundreds of small waterfalls appear in the rocky walls. It has been protected since 1965.

Khongoriin Els (Singing Dunes)

Khongoriin Els (Singing Dunes)

Khongoriin Els, the largest sand dune of Mongolia, is located in Severei soum, South Gobi province. It is length of 180 kilometers and 15-20 kilometers wide reaching a height of 800 meters in some highest areas and, 235 km from Dalanzadgad, which is the center of South Gobi province. The amazing points of this sand dune are little lake called Adag and Khongor River which flows along the sand dunes and gives birth to oases. The sand dune takes up 2.7% of the country’s territory.

Bayanzag (Flaming Cliffs)

Bayanzag was the bottom of Ancient Sea which excited 60-70 million years ago. It is well known as Flaming Cliffs named by Roy Andrew Chapman American paleontologist, who had visited Mongolia in 1920 and discovered the first nest of dinosaur eggs the world had ever seen. In sunrise and sunset time Bayanzag cliffs are looked like very legendary with color of red like flame that is why named as Flaming Cliffs.

Khavtsgait’s Petroglyph.

The most famous painting of the those petroglyph is 1.5-2.0m, called “Gallery of petroglyph”, south west facing, slope with slope, the form, drawing, abilities, and designs described on the rocks have a series of works that have been created for several decades by created a number of people. Further, there is a picture depicting giant ostriches. “The women of the sand dune who lived in the sexual sail in the Bayanzag (who used to be the names of the ancient people), were made necklaces by of giant ostrich fossil hull egg” … as defined, Khavtsgait’s rock picture have coincident is very interesting.

Baga Gazar Mountain Nature Reserve.

Granite stone massifs is located in the middle of the semi Gobi desert – Dund Gobi province, 250km west south of Ulaanbaatar. Nature reserve is covering 300 square km area. Highest point of rocky mountain is 1800m above sea level. There are some historical remains, including ruins of Buddhist monastery, petroglyphs, burial mounds and caves. The area is also best spot to see many species of wild animals and birds, such as ibex, argali wild sheep, vultures, hawks and eagles.

Tsagaan Suvarga (White Stupa)

Tsagaan SuvargaTsagaan Suvarga or White stupa natural formation is located in Ulziit village of Dund Gobi province, middle Gobi Desert. It is 400 meters long, over 60 meters high limestone bedrock from ancient sea bed.

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